In addition to these taxon-level shifts, we delve into how species vary in their leaf-out times and responses to climate change, the benefits of leafing out early (i.e. a longer growing season in which to photosynthesize) and the dangers of leafing out early (i.e. an increased risk of vulnerable young leaves encountering frost). We also identify some important next steps in the study of climate change and phenology, including a greater focus on autumn events like leaf senescence and fruit ripening.
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